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Distinctively KeLaTte : The Mother " LAND "

* Entri kali ini adalah siri terbaru kesinambungan dari siri-siri " Distinctively KeLaTte " sebelum ini.
Sila bertandang ke Archives untuk mendapatkan siri siri yang terdahulu.





Distinctively KeLaTte :
THE MOTHER " LAND "




Awwalan,
salam Aidilfitri 1428 H saya ucapkan kepada semua Anak Kelantan yang pulang beraya ke bumi Kelantan nun jauh dari perantauan, sama ada dari dalam Malaysia mahupun dari luar negara.



SELAMAT HARI RAYA AIDILFITRI & MAAF ZAHIR BATIN !



Bercakap tentang " Bumi Kelantan ",
ada sesuatu yang menarik ingin saya kongsi bersama di sini.

Hal ini boleh dikatakan amat unik bagi Negeri Kelantan jika dibandingkan dengan negeri-negeri lain di Semenanjung ( kecuali Sabah dan Sarawak ) dan entri kali ini akan menyentuh khas berkenaan Pentadbiran Tanah di Kelantan - yang saya kira amat unik dan tersendiri !!

Entri kali ini memang panjang,
tetapi tak rugi rasanya kalau dibaca satu persatu hingga habis ..... kerana saya yakin tidak ramai yang betul-betul faham akan perkara ini.

Pertama tama sekali,
apa yang dikenali sebagai " DAERAH " di negeri negeri lain,
di Kelantan dikenali sebagai " JAJAHAN " !

Suatu istilah yang wujud hasil sejarah Kerajaan Kelantan ( barangkali kesan dari sejarah feudal chieftains ? ) yang panjang ( which predates Malacca itself ! ) dan tiada pula kena mengena dengan penjajahan Siam, British mahupun Jepun. Simply local by origin ! Our own unique creation !

Negeri Kelantan terdiri dari 10 buah Jajahan iaitu
Kota Bharu, Pasir Mas, Tumpat, Bachok, Pasir Puteh, Machang, Kuala Krai, Tanah Merah, Jeli dan Gua Musang. Dengan Jajahan Tumpat yang terkecil dan Jajahan Gua Musang yang terbesar.

Kemudian, setiap " Jajahan " ini pula dipecahkan lagi kepada " Daerah ". Sebagai contoh, Jajahan Kota Bharu sahaja terbahagi kepada 14 buah daerah ( Banggu, Badang, Sering, Panji, Pendek, Ketereh, Kota, Salor, Kemumin, Kadok, Limbat, Beta, Peringat dan Kubang Kerian ) manakala Jajahan paling besar di Kelantan iaitu Jajahan Gua Musang, hanya terdiri dari 3 buah daerah iaitu Ciku, Galas dan Bertam. Daerah daerah ini seterusnya dipecahkan pula kepada " Mukim " yang tiadalah terkira bilangannya ......

Di sini dapat diperhatikan bahawa kewujudan sesebuah " daerah " ( dan juga mukim ) bukanlah bergantung kepada keluasan sesuatu Jajahan sebaliknya bergantung kepada bilangan penduduk dan kepentingannya ( terdapat cadangan untuk memecahkan Tanah Tinggi Lojing di Gua Musang kepada sebuah Daerah ). Perlu diingatkan bahawa 80% daripada populasi keseluruhan rakyat Kelantan adalah bertumpu di kawasan Kelantan Utara di mana Jajahan Kota Bharu terletak.

Di Kelantan, pentadbir tertinggi ( perkhidmatan awam ) ;

i ) dalam sesuatu jajahan dikenali sebagai " Ketua Jajahan " ,

( Kelantanese : D.O ==> Orghae Kelate biso jugok kecchaek orghae putih weh ! )

ii ) bagi Daerah, dikenali sebagai " Penggawa " ,

( Kelantanese : Tok Gawwo . Kalau di luar Kelantan, dipanggil " Penghulu " )

iii ) dan bagi Mukim pula adalah, " Penghulu "

( Kelantanese : " Tok Ngullu ", kalau di luar Kelantan adalah " Ketua Kampung " ).

Pejabat Ketua Jajahan adalah di Pejabat Tanah Dan Jajahan manakala bagi Penggawa pula adalah di Balai atau Pejabat Penggawa di daerah masing-masing. Penghulu ? Pastinya di rumah masing masing .... Nah, lihatlah, dengan kata nama seperti " Jajahan " dan " Daerah " ini, seolah olah Kelantan itu bukan sebuah negeri tetapi NEGARA lagaknya ! MuHahahaha ....

Walaupun mungkin pada dasarnya tidak banyak berbeza berbanding negeri negeri lain di Malaysia, melainkan faktor penggunaan istilah yang nyata berlainan, namun darihal Undang Undang Tanah, ternyata negeri Kelantan boleh dikira amat unik ( barangkali tidaklah sampai ke taraf "paling" unik di Malaysia kot ... mungkin sekadar di kalangan terunik semata ! ).

Di sini saya nyatakan DUA sebab mengapa saya beranggapan sedemikian :


PERTAMA ........

Enakmen Tanah Rizab Melayu Kelantan ( endorsan 18 Jun 1940 ) menyatakan
KESEMUA tanah di Kelantan adalah tanah rizab Melayu

dengan pengecualian :


1 ) Seksyen 6,7,10 dan 11 Bandar Kota Bharu ( Jajahan Kota Bharu )

2 ) Daerah Temangan
( Jajahan Machang, kecuali lot No.216 sehingga 223 Bandar Temangan ).

3 ) Daerah Batu Mengkebang ( Jajahan Kuala Krai )

4 ) Daerah Galas ( Jajahan Gua Musang )


Mudah kata,
sekitar 90% (?) tanah di Kelantan hanya boleh diurusniaga dan ditukar milik di kalangan orang " Melayu " sahaja dan tafsiran " Melayu " atau " Malay " dalam Enakmen Tanah Rizab Melayu 1930 adalah dipetik seperti berikut :


Quote:

    GOVERNMENT OF KELANTAN
    Enactment No. 18 of 1930
    " The Malay Reservations Enactment, 1930 "

    Seal of the H.H. the Sultan
    A.S. Haynes - Acting British Adviser

    Section 3.(i) Interpretation.
    "Malay" means a person belonging to any Malayan race who speaks
    any Malayan language and professes the Mohammedan religion, and
    shall include (a) the Majlis Ugama Islam (b) the Official Administrator
    when acting as administrator of trustee of estate of a deceased Malay.






Yang seterusnya membawa kepada keunikan yang KEDUA ........

Hanya mereka yang memiliki taraf Anak Kelantan atau Native of Kelantan sahaja, tidak kiralah Melayu atau bukan Melayu, yang dibenarkan memiliki dan memperdagangkan ( menggadai, memberi sewa dll ) tanah di Kelantan !

Sebagaimana termaktub dalam Seksyen 104, Enakmen Tanah Kelantan 1938 ( dipetik seperti di bawah ) :


Quote:

    GOVERNMENT OF KELANTAN :
    Enactment No. 26 of 1938

    Seal of H.H. the Sultan.
    A.C. Baker - British Adviser

    PART I : GENERAL

    Restriction on sale of land to non-Kelantanese

    104. (i) Notwithstanding anything contained in section 98 the
    Land Registrar shall refuse to register any transfer, charge
    or lease of land by a native of Kelantan to a party who is
    not a native of Kelantan
    , until such transaction has received
    the sanction of His Highness the Sultan in Council subject to the
    imposition of such restriction in interest and such conditions in the
    document of title and such terms of rent therein as he may think fit
    and any such transfer, charge or lease shall be null and void unless
    the previous sanction of His Highness the Sultan in Council shall have
    been obtained.




Tetapi apakah pula tafsiran " Anak Kelantan " atau " Native of Kelantan " ?
Berikut merupakan tafsiran yang termaktub dalam Enakmen berkenaan :


Quote:

    " Natives of Kelantan " means a person who falls within any of the following classes :

    (a) any person born in Kelantan whose father was a Malay ;

    (b) any person born in Kelantan whose mother was a Malay and whose father
    was a Muslim

    (c) any person wherever born whose father as a Malay born in Kelantan

    (d) any person wherever born both of whose parents were Malays and who
    has resided at least 15 years in Kelantan ;

    (e) any person who was born in Kelantan and whose father was also born in Kelantan




Dapat diperhatikan di sini bahawa hanya syarat kelima (e) sahaja yang memberikan definasi lebih bebas kepada tafsiran "Native of Kelantan" iaitu merujuk kepada bukan Melayu. Walaubagaimana pun, sekiranya terdapat kemusykilan dari tafsiran di atas, Enakmen yang sama telah memperuntukkan yang berikut :

Quote:

    Doubt as to meaning of "Native of Kelantan".

    107. If any doubt shall arise as to whether any person is a native of Kelantan
    for the purpose of this Enactment, the officer concerned or any party interested
    may refer the matter to the State Secretary for the decision of His Highness
    the Sultan in Council and His Highness's decision thereon shall be final and
    shall not be called in question by any person.





Bagi memahami sebab musabab di sebalik Enakmen ini, kita mesti kembali ke sekitar 100 tahun yang lampau.

Akhir abad ke 19 dan awal abad ke 20, Tanah Melayu menyaksikan kebanjiran ramai imigran ke Tanah Melayu. Sejajar dengan itu, ramai pemilik tanah berbangsa Melayu khususnya dari kalangan bangsawan dan berharta, sebagai jalan mudah menambahkan pendapatan, telah bertindak menjual tanah-tanah mereka kepada golongan imigran berkenaan. Pelik tapi benar, saya difahamkan bahawa British, yang baru sahaja bertapak di Kelantan ketika itu, merasakan perkembangan tersebut tidak sesuai bagi masa depan Kelantan lantas telah bertindak dengan mewartakan undang undang yang menghadkan perpindahan hak milik tanah kepada bukan pribumi. Aneh sekali kerana British nampaknya ada juga memikirkan nasib kaum pribumi atau .... boleh jadi juga kerana ada desakan dari orang Melayu Kelantan sendiri ? Wallahu a'laam ......

Kesimpulannya,
Enakmen ini unik kerana ia jelas mengkhususkan kepada Melayu Kelantan sahaja. Bermaksud, usahkan bukan Melayu bahkan orang Melayu sekalipun tidak mudah untuk mendapatkan tanah di Kelantan sekiranya dia bukan tergolong di bawah tafsiran Native of Kelantan mengikut Enakmen berkenaan ! Mudah kata, you have to be a Kelantanese to own a piece of land in Kelantan !

Walaupun demikian,
saya bukanlah seorang peguam untuk seterusnya mentafsir secara mendalam dari Enakmen Tanah Kelantan 1938 sebagaimana yang telah saya petik di atas. Tetapi, pada hemat saya dan apa yang sudah pasti, yang jelas sudah ternyata jelas.

Ada pihak yang menyokong, bersyukur dengan termaktubnya Enakmen ini tetapi tidak kurang juga yang mempersoalkan praktikaliti masa kini serta faedah sebenar dari kewujudan serta pengekalannya. Tak usahlah bertanya pendapat saya dalam hal ini, silalah teka sendiri.

Perkara yang sudah terang serta tak perlu lagi bersuluh adalah
Kelantan yang kita kenali sekarang sedikit sebanyak telah terbentuk dan dibentuk serta dicorak oleh Enakmen Tanah Kelantan 1938 ini.

Barangkali kerana itulah,

Kelantan sekarang adalah " sesuatu " bagi kalian ....

..... in a way or another !




ALLAHU AKBAR ALLAHU AKBAR ALLAHU AKBAR

LAA ILAHAILLALAHU ALLAHU AKBAR

ALLAHU AKBAR WALILLAHIL HAMDU





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SKIM BACAAN TAMBAHAN ( 1 )

( Kemaskini 24 Oktober 2007 )


Tafsiran " tanah " sebagaimana termaktub di dalam Seksyen 5, Kanun Tanah Negara 1965

( dipetik dalam bahasa Inggeris kerana sebarang kemusykilan kepada maksud bahasa Melayu akan dirujuk kepada teks bahasa Inggeris ) :


Quote:

    " Land " includes

    (a) the surface of the earth and all substances forming that surface;

    (b) the earth below the surface and all substances therein;

    (c) all vegetation and other natural products, whether or not requiring the
    periodical application of labour to their production, and whether on or below
    the surface;

    (d) all things attached to the earth or permanently fastened to any thing
    attached to the earth, whether on or below the surface; and

    (e) land covered by water;






SKIM BACAAN TAMBAHAN ( 2 )

( Kemaskini 24 Oktober 2007 )


Petikan dari New Straits Times Online 28 Jun 2007 :


Quote:

    OLD KELANTAN LAND LAW FRUSTRATES PROPERTY BUYERS
    By : Sulaiman Jaafar

    KOTA BARU, THU. :
    They can live, work, marry, vote or even contest for a seat in the state
    legislative assembly. But there is one thing people not born in Kelantan
    will find tough — buying property in the state.

    They are restricted by an old state land law which requires people born
    outside Kelantan to fulfil several conditions before they can buy property.
    Firstly, the buyers must be Malays, as the majority of the land here is
    Malay reserve land.

    Then they must have resided in the state for at least 15 years. And to
    top it off, all transactions must be approved by the state executive
    committee. These conditions have deterred many non-Kelantan born
    people like Zabidi (not his real name) from buying a home.

    After living here for more than 10 years, the 40-year old civil servant
    and his wife, both from Perak, decided to settle down in Kelantan for
    good and started scouting for a house. They found one and paid a
    deposit but were forced to wait eight months before obtaining the
    approval from the state committee.

    By then, the developer had sold the unit to another buyer. Zabidi is
    now having second thoughts about buying property in Kelantan,
    especially when he has to submit a fresh application to the authorities.

    "I don’t know why they are making it difficult for us to buy homes here.
    This is double standards.

    "We are all Malaysians, yet I have to go through a lot of hassle to
    own a property here."

    His views are echoed by several quarters who called on the state
    government to review the archaic law which has slowed down development
    in the state. Kelantan Bar chairman Datuk Sukri Mohamed was blunt
    when he called for changes.

    "Kelantan is the only state in the country which practises this, and
    I see no reason why it should be allowed to continue.

    "It is strange that people from Kelantan wanting to buy property in
    other states do not have to fulfil such conditions."

    Sukri, however, admitted that the people of Kelantan were conservative
    and changing the law would be an uphill task.

    "The state government will not want to rock the boat," he said.

    Although 90 per cent of land in the state was Malay reserve, he felt
    the state government should allow land applications for big projects
    to push for development.

    Kelantan Real Estate and Housing Developers Association Malaysia
    (Rehda) chairman Wan Mohd Dzulkifli Wan Daud said the law had
    affected sale of houses here. The state’s property market was categorised
    as disappointing last year and the situation is expected to worsen this year.
    Last year, only 227 units were launched with 96 unit sold compared with
    2,235 units launched in 2005. Wan Mohd Dzulkifli said Rehda had
    proposed to the state to abolish the conditions and allow unsold units
    to be purchased by non-Malays from Kelantan.

    State executive councillor Datuk Takiyuddin Hassan denied that the law
    was dated and had hampered development in the state. He said it was
    drawn up to protect property in the state from being bought by outsiders.

    "We have no intention to review the law. People outside Kelantan can still
    buy but certain conditions still have to be met. Submitted applications
    are rarely rejected."

    The law was believed to have been introduced in the 19th century when
    Kelantan was a vassal to Siam. In 1900, the Kelantan Sultan sold a land
    concession to retired British officer Robert William Duff who owned Duff
    Development Company. However, the Sultan was ordered by the King
    of Siam to stop the sale, as he only had powers to endow the land to natives.

    The Kelantan Land Enactment 1938 defined natives as Kelantan-born
    Malays, Kelantan-born Malays with Malay mothers and Muslim fathers,
    and Malays who were born outside the state but with their fathers being
    born here.

    Also under the group are Malays who have resided in the state for
    a minimum 15 years and non-Malays who have lived in the state
    for generations.




Walau bagaimana pun petikan yang merujuk kepada bantahan Raja Siam ;

" the Sultan was ordered by the King of Siam to stop the sale, as he only had powers to endow the land to natives "

adalah didapati bercanggah dengan dokumen Arkib Negara Malaysia yang antaranya dipetik

" Perjanjian ini telah diakui sah oleh Putera Damrong Rajanubabh bagi pihak Raja Siam "

( sila rujuk " Perjanjian Sultan Kelantan dengan Duff Development Company " )

dan .....

turut didapati bercanggah dengan laporan akhbar The New York Times cetakan Ahad, 5 April 1908 bertajuk " ANGLO-SIAMESE TREATY.; Important Negotiations Very Nearly Brought to a Close ", yang dipetik seperti berikut :

" The Duff Development Company owns a concession of some 2,500 square miles of the country, obtained from the Rajah of Kelantan, supported by the British Government and ratified in 1902 by the Siamese Government, in which year the Rajah of Kelantan acknowledged Siamese suzerainity. "

( sila rujuk The New York Times Online Archive : " ANGLO-SIAMESE TREATY.; Important Negotiations Very Nearly Brought to a Close. " )







PERKEMBANGAN HARTANAH DI KOTA BHARU, KELANTAN



Pada 28 Mei 2006 :



Dan pada 6 Oktober 2007 :



Kota Bharu Trade Center ( KBTC ), Jalan Parit Dalam, Kota Bharu, Kelantan.
( kalau berdasarkan papan kenyataan di tapak projek, di situ sedang dibina antaranya 6 tingkat ruang perniagaan ( penyewa utama GIANT Hypermart ) dan 14 tingkat apartment )



Pada 28 Mei 2006 :



Dan pada 6 Oktober 2007 :



Pelangi Mall & Condominium, Jalan Post Office Lama, Kota Bharu, Kelantan.



Pada 28 May 2006 :



dan pada 6 Oktober 2007 :



Kelantan Trade Center, Jalan Bayam, Kota Bharu, Kelantan.



Pada 28 May 2006 :



dan pada 6 Oktober 2007 :



Plaza Menang Intan ( Apartment & Ruang Niaga ) Jalan Che Su, Kota Bharu, Kelantan.



Pada 1 May 2007 :



Pada 6 Oktober 2007 :



TESCO, Lembah Sireh, Kota Bharu, Kelantan.
( khabarnya bakal dibuka dalam bulan Disember 2007 ini )





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UNTUK RENUNGAN :


Hadis riwayat Said bin Zaid bin Amru bin Nufail ra. :

" Bahwa Rasulullah saw. bersabda: Barang siapa mengambil sejengkal tanah dengan zalim, maka Allah akan mengalungkannya di hari kiamat setebal tujuh lapis bumi. "

(Shahih Muslim No.3020)


Hadis riwayat Aisyah ra. :

" Bahwa Rasulullah saw. bersabda: Barang siapa berbuat zalim dengan mengambil tanah seluas sejengkal, maka akan dikalungkan di lehernya setebal tujuh lapis bumi. "

(Shahih Muslim No.3025)

Rujukan : Internet : " Kitab Jual Beli " ( klik ke sumber asal )




* Bila nafas terakhir dihembus, secara percuma kita akan dihadiahkan tanah seluas 6X4 kaki beserta hak kedalaman 6 kaki. Itu pun kalau percuma. Di Jepun contohnya, kita perlu menempah dan membeli semasa badan masih dikandung nyawa ... dan harganya bukan sekupang dua ... emm .. alahaaaii ...







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